Name That Plant
The correct answer is d. American burnweed (Erechtites hieraciifolia). It is also known as pilewort and fireweed.
Shallow rooted, American burnweed is easy to pull up. Even if you are in the wildflower camp and like the look of the plant, you should pull it up before it flowers. American burnweed is a prolific producer of seeds that are spread by wind. That’s how it arrived in your yard. Failure to pull it up before it sets seeds will mean a healthy and dispersed crop of these plants next year — perhaps more of these weeds or wildflowers than you had in mind. If it has already spread its seeds, you can let the first frost kill off the plant.